HunedoaraAlba County - Brasov County - Bistrita Nasaud County - Cluj County - Covasna County - Harghita County - Hunedoara County - Mures County - Salaj County - Sibiu CountyHotels in Hunedoara - Travel Agencies in HunedoaraOther zones : Crisana and Banat - Dobrogea - Maramures - Moldova and Bucovina - Muntenia and Oltenia
- geographical situation: in the central-western part of Romania, on the middle course of the Mures, at the crossing point of the four roads: of Mures and Banat, of Oltenia (through the narrow path of Jiu), and of the Cris Land (over the top of the mountain in the down valley of the White Cris);
- neighbours: in the southern part-Gorj; in the western part-Caras Severin, Timis; in the northern-western part-Arad; in the northern-eastern part-Alba; in the southern-eastern part-Valcea;
- surface: 7,063 square km (respectively 2.9% of the country's territory);
- population: 543,000 inhabitants;
- towns: DEVA-capital (with 76,000 inhabitants, in the Mures meadow, in the northern-western part of the Poiana Ruscai Mountains); Aninoasa; Brad; Calan; Hateg; Hunedoara; Lupeni; Orastie; Petrila; Petrosani; Simeria; Uricani; Vulcan.
- relief: uneven and varied, due to its location in the contact area of the chain of the Meridional Carpathians (the Retezat Mountains-belonging completely to this county, parts of the Godeanu, Tarcu, Valcan, Parang-with Mandra Peak of 2,519 m, Sureanu Mountains), in the southern part with alpine vegetation and glacial vestiges; in the north, Apuseni Mountains (Gaina, Zarand, Metalliferous, Sebes, Bihor) with smooth rounded peaks due to the volcanic and karst phenomena, having a variety of shapes; and in the west, Banat Mountains (Poiana Ruscai) where the mountains cover more than half of the county territory being surrounded by the following depressions: Petrosani (high and with hills), Hateg (lower, with wide river meadow plains and terraces), Hunedoara, Simeria, Brad;
- climate: temperate continental, with obvious vertical ranges in tiers, with rainfall not uniformly distributed, with northern-western winds;
- watercourses: Mures is the main collector and it transversally crosses the county from east to west with its tributaries: Cerna, Strei, Raul Mare, Jiu, Crisul Alb, but there are also the over 80 alpine glacial lakes from Retezat: Bucura, Taul Negru, Zanoaga, Peleaga, the over 32 from Parang: Calcescu, Slavei, the ones from Sureanu, Sebesului: Iezerul Mare and Iezerul Mic.
- The Retezat Mountains-the fantastic stone "fortress" of these mountains has the highest average altitude of the Romanian Carpathians range (more than 60 peaks reaching an altitude of over 2,200m, culminating with Peleaga, 2,509 m). But it is not only the heights of the Retezat that impress the visitor: here, the greatness of the glacial structures is unique in the Romanian mountains, being adorned with the sparkling jewels of more than 80 glacial lakes. For all tourists, the Retezat is a mountain of superlatives. To the original natural values which represent the main reason of an intense tourism, it has to be added the existence of rich and varied flora and fauna, protected within the "Retezat National Park". This park represents the greatest complex scientific preserve in Romania and UNESCO has included it among the natural preserves of the Biosphere. The park has over 2,000 ha that include in their complex the glacial reliefe (many glacial structures, valleys and lakes), rare vegetal species (mountain orchid, edelweiss, wild nut tree), valuable animal species (chamois, deer, bear, capercaillie, lynx, wild boar and in the clear waters of the mountain lakes and rivers, the trout). The park includes the Scientific Preserve Zlatuia (over 2,000 ha) where the access is permitted only with the approval of the Natural Monuments Committee. Being an authentic museum of natural history, the tourists have to protect the Retezat, for the real meaning of tourism is not to reach performances in what concerns the distances and heights, but to get to know nature and enjoy its beauties.
- The Parang Mountains-by no means inferior to the Retezat. The Parang even surpass the heights of Peleaga from Retezat with 10 m, the Mandra Peak (or Parangu Mare) culminating at 2,519 m. Most of the glacial lakes are situated in the upper basin of Jiu.
- The Poiana Ruscai Mountains-easy to climb, by foot or by car. From the point of view of the climate and of the attractive landscape, the most favourable month is September.
- The Sureanu Mountains-full of history, with karst and glacial relieve.
- Cioclovina Cave-in the north-western part of the Sebes Mountains, on the territory of Cioclovina village, it is included in the Cioclovina-Ponorici Karst Complex forming one of the largest preserves of speleology of Romania. It has been inhabited since Late Palaeolithic and it is famous for the beautiful interior decorations (the caves have drops of amber caught in the lune spar as bat skulls).
- Tecuri Cave-in the north of Sureanu Mountains, it has rich halls adorned with transparent coloured or not coloured limestone concretions (in shades ranging from pink to violet red). It is unique among the Romanian caves.
- Sura Mare Cave-near Ponor village, crossed by Ohaba river, which also forms an interior lake, it is the main cave of Sebes Mountains. Here it has been discovered the biggest bat colony in Romania. The cave is hard to reach.
- Bucura Lake-the biggest glacial lake in Romania (over 10 ha), close to which there are most of the marked touristic routes from Retezat Mountains;
- Zanoaga Lake-the deepest in Romania, 29 m;
- Portii; Agatat; Florica; Victoria; Ana; Lia;
- Galcescu Lake-at an altitude of 1,925 m, it is the largest glacial lake from these mountains. It can be seen right near the touristic route, which crosses the massif. The lake has been declared a monument of nature while its surroundings form a natural preserve (geological, floristic and landscape).
- Gura Apei Lake-artificial lake on the Raul Mare;
- Cincis-on the Cerna.
PRESERVES AND MONUMENTS OF NATURE
- Dendrological Park-Simeria, (12 km from Deva, in Mures the meadow), it is one of the tourist attractions of national importance being an authentic monument in park art. It has been created 250 years ago, when species brought from various corners of the world (China, Japan, North America) were planted here. Perfectly adapted are: magnolias, cork tree, Oriental firtree, bamboo, eucalyptus;
- Bejan Forest-near Deva, forest preserve where there can be found all oak species existing in Romania;
- Oak Forest of Chizid-near Hunedoara;
- Horea's Evergreen Oak-Tebea, monument of nature and in the same time historical monument reminding us of the leader of the great uprising of 1784.
- Geoagiu-Bai-(46 km from Deva and 19 km from Orastie), permanent watering and climatic spa located at the foot of the Metalliferous Mountains at an altitude of 350 m. The spa has been known since ancient times, first under the name of Germisara (germ = hot, sara = source) and then, during the Roman Era, under the name of Thermal Dodonae (the Romans intensely used these water sources and they built statues of Aesculap and goddess Hygea). To the known qualities of the thermal waters we have to add the comforting and tonic climate characterised by mild winters deprived of terrible frosts and strong winds and with pleasant summers. The clinic offers the possibility of mineral water baths in pools and tubs, kinetotherapy, hydro-electrophoto- and thermal therapy, plant baths, mud baths, medical gymnastics and massage. The access is by train: Geoagiu or ora-tie stations, on Bucharest-Brasov-Arad road, by bus to the spa, roads-DN 65 on the Alba Iulia-Simeria tract with derivation in Geoagiu village to the spa.
- The Dacian Fortresses prove the Dacian high level of material culture. In the area of Orastie Mountains it was located, between 1th cent. B.C.-1th cent. A.D. the political centre of all Dacian tribes. The main fortresses were found at: Costesti, 18 km from Orastie, Blidaru, 22 km from Orastie, Piatra Rosie, 30 km from Orastie and Gradistea Muncelului, 39 km from Orastie;
- The Gradistea Muncelului Fortress-together with a complex of sanctuaries and a civilian settlement, Sarmizegedusa Basileion used to be the capital of the Dacian State. The sanctuaries were dedicated to the cult of the sun and to the (the buildings used to form an ingenious calendar, amazingly precise for that times);
- The Blidaru Fortress-conquered by the Romans in 102 A.D, later it has been rebuilt by Decebal and finally completely destroyed by Emperor Traian in 106 AD;
- Sarmisegetusa Ulpia Traiana-17 km from Hateg, the capital of Roman Dacia, residence of the most important institutions and of the important imperial official. The town was founded in 107 by orders of Emperor Trajan, its complete name being Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa. The settlement developed until 271 A.D. when the Roman authorities withdrew from Dacia. Today, the vestiges of the Colony Forum, the amphitheatre (place for festivities and gladiators' fights) and the ancient necropolis can be visited.
- The Deva Fortress-built in the 13th century on a volcanic cone that dominates the city centre from an altitude of 184 m. Attested in 1269, it was one of the strongest fortresses in Transylvania. It was completely left in 1849 when, because of the explosion of the powder reserves, the walls of the fortress blew up;
- The Vestiges of the Roman Fortress-Vetel, amphitheatre, Roman baths, aqueducts;
- Roman Settlement-Calan, it has been preserved after the Roman retreat;
- Malaiesti Fortress-Salasu de Sus (14th cent.);
- Colt Fortress-(14th cent.);
- The Corvins Castle-Hunedoara, its architectural beauty sets it among the most precious monuments of the Romanian and south-eastern Europe feudal art. The impressive building with countless towers was built in the 13th century on a piece of rock. The past of the castle is mostly related to the Corvin family, which owned it for a long period of time. Iancu de Hunedoara repaired and modified it (1446-1453), arranging the "Knights Room" and "Diet Room". Developed few centuries later, the castle mixes the Gothic style with characteristic elements of Renaissance and Baroque.
- "Magna Curia" Castle-Deva, built in the 16th century in a Renaissance style, it later suffered some Baroque changes, being called "Bethlen". Nowadays, it hosts the Dacian and Roman Civilisation Museum.
- Castle-Santamarie Orlea (16th-18th cent.).
- Church-Densus, one of the oldest Romanian churches, built in the 13th century from the ruins of the Roman Sarmizegetusa. It has a strange shape retaining some elements of the late Romantic style. It is adorned with interesting mural paintings (from 1443);
- Church-Santamarie-Orlea (13th century), Romance style, it preserves a great part of the precious original frescoes;
- Church-Strei (13th century), it preserves 14th century paintings, being one of the most valuable ensembles of medieval paintings in Romania;
- Church-Ciscior (14th century);
- Church-Ribita (1417);
- Orthodox Church-Hunedoara (15th century);
- Prislop Monastery-Silvasu de Sus (13 km from Hateg and 16 km from Hunedoara), 1564.
- "Aurel Vlaicu" Memorial Museum-(30 km from Deva), arranged in the honour of this pioneer of Romanian and world aviation. Aurel Vlaicu, the great inventor and pilot, was born here and also here he built his first models.
- Museum of Mining History-hosting interesting mineralogical collections.
Source: Romanian Travel Guide / Publirom